Previous IFPA-Fletcher Conferences

National Security Strategy and Policy:
Planning for and Responding to Threats to the U.S. Homeland

October 28-29, 2004
Ronald Reagan Building
and International Trade Center
Washington, D.C.


DAY ONE - Thursday, October 28

6:45 – 8:15 AM — Conference Registration and Informal Reception
Amphitheater Foyer

8:15 – 8:30 AM — Conference Welcome and Introduction

Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr., President, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, and Shelby Cullom Davis Professor of International Security Studies, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University

Lieutenant General Joseph R. Inge, USA, Deputy Commander, U.S. Northern Command

8:30 – 9:15 AM — Opening Keynote Address

The Honorable Paul McHale, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense

Introduction by Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

9:15 – 10:45 AM — Session 1 - Amphitheater
Anticipating and Assessing U.S. Vulnerabilities in a Changing Threat Environment

This session will provide a survey of vulnerabilities and threats that are being addressed and issues that still need to be considered in a comprehensive strategy for homeland security/defense. Issues to be discussed include steps taken since 9/11 to plug existing gaps in such areas as border security, airports, and seaports. What are the major remaining vulnerabilities and to what extent do they create threats for which we must prepare in the months and years ahead? This session will include a discussion of catastrophic events characterized as having low or unknown probability but extremely high consequences, as was the case with 9/11.


Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.


Dr. Graham T. Allison, Jr., Douglas Dillon Professor of Government and Director, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

Dr. Stephen E. Flynn, Jeane J. Kirkpatrick Senior Fellow in National Security Studies, Council on Foreign Relations

Dr. Lowell L. Wood, Jr., Senior Staff Scientist, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Commissioner, Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack

Dr. Philip D. Zelikow, Director, The Miller Center and White Burkett Miller Professor of History, The University of Virginia and Executive Director, National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States

Key topics

  • Protecting Critical Infrastructure
  • Securing Cyberspace
  • Understanding Bioterrorism
  • Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism
  • Protecting Borders and Transportation Systems
  • Food Safety and Agriculture Protection
  • Identifying and Coping with Future Threats
  • The Missile Threat
  • Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) and the Economic Infrastructure

10:45 – 11:00 AM — Break

11:00 AM – 12:30 PM — Session 2 - Amphitheater
The Intelligence Conundrum: Developing Actionable Intelligence for Homeland Defense/Security

The purpose of this session is to assess the role of intelligence especially in the post-9/11 setting. This includes the need to develop actionable intelligence both to anticipate and respond to the threats to the United States and to share intelligence across departments and agencies, and from the federal to the state and local levels. This session is designed to build upon the 9/11 experience and to consider recommendations such as those set forth by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States as well as other critiques and proposals for improving intelligence collection and analysis in light of the 21st century security challenges facing the United States as we prepare for homeland defense/security. In short, this session would address the fundamental issue facing decision-makers today: namely, when and how do we know that action must be taken?


Dr. Richard Shultz, Professor of International Politics and Director, International Security Studies Program, The Fletcher School, Tufts University


R. James Woolsey, Vice President, Booz Allen Hamilton, and former Director, Central Intelligence Agency

Michael Noll, Director, J-2, U.S. Northern Command

Russell E. Travers, Deputy Director for Information Sharing and Knowledge Development, Terrorist Threat Integration Center

Dale Watson, Principal, Booz Allen Hamilton, and former Executive Assistant Director for Counter-Terrorism and Counter-Intelligence, the Federal Bureau of Investigation

Key topics

  • Improving Information Sharing and Deciding Who has a Need to Know
  • Integrating and Disseminating Actionable Intelligence
  • Reorganizing from the Bottom Up and from the Top Down
  • Structural Barriers to Joint Intelligence Collection and Analysis
  • Bridging the Foreign-Domestic Divide
  • Developing Collection Capabilities: Priorities and Resource Requirements

12:45 – 2:00 PM — Luncheon and Address
Atrium Ballroom

Securing an Open Society: Canada’s National Security Policy
Rob Wright, National Security Advisor to the Prime Minister and Associate Secretary

Introduction by Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

2:15 – 4:00 PM — Session 3 - Amphitheater
Relating Homeland Defense to Homeland Security

The purpose of this session is to examine what has been accomplished since 9/11 while also setting forth issues for future action. The unprecedented nature of the threat to the United States and the traditional role of the military in American society raise challenges for Homeland Defense (HLD) and Homeland Security (HLS) planning. It is critical to understand the distinction between the role the Department of Defense (DOD) plays with respect to National Security and the role of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as the lead federal agency for HLS. HLD operations fall under the lead responsibility of DOD, while other federal departments and agencies support DOD’s efforts. DHS also coordinates supplemental Federal assistance when the consequences of an incident exceed State, local, or tribal capabilities. In most cases, the lines of authority and responsibility prior to potential catastrophic events have already been established. The session is designed to provide a greater understanding of the relationship between homeland security and homeland defense – and an understanding that the key is who is in charge. This includes substantive issues as well as organizational arrangements.


Dr. Jacquelyn K. Davis, Executive Vice President,
Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis


Lieutenant General Edward G. Anderson III, USA (Ret.), Principal, Booz Allen Hamilton, and former Deputy Commander, United States Northern Command

The Honorable Stephen M. Duncan, Director, Institute for Homeland Security Studies, National Defense University

Edward A. Flynn, Secretary of Public Safety, Commonwealth of Massachusetts ** Unable to attend conference

Andrew Howell, Vice President, Homeland Security, U.S. Chamber of Commerce

Major General Timothy J. Lowenberg, Adjutant General of Washington State, Washington Military Department

Key topics

  • The New National Response Plan: Integrating Prevention, Preparedness, Response, Recovery, and Mitigation Plans
  • Identifying Lead Responsibilities
  • Providing Federal Support to State and Local Authorities, including the Operation of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Assistance Act
  • The Role of DOD, NORTHCOM, and other Government Offices/Agencies in Homeland Defense and Civil Support
  • Providing Military Assistance to State and Local Authorities: The Role of the National Guard
  • Relating governmental and private sector responsibilities,/

4:00 – 4:15 PM — Break

4:15 – 5:45 PM — Session 4 - Amphitheater
Essential Capabilities for a Layered and Integrated Homeland Defense and Homeland Security

The goal of this session is to consider the key capabilities for homeland defense/security. This includes essential military forces as well as strategies and command and control issues for homeland defense/security. Discussion will encompass relationships among the various components of homeland defense. The session is designed to consider efforts to bring greater integration and coordination and to create essential capabilities for homeland defense. Discussion will focus on what has been done since 9/11 and what remains to be done in order to assure that such capabilities are available when and where they are needed and that they function efficiently by themselves and with each other.


Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.


Lieutenant General Joseph R. Inge, USA, Deputy Commander, U.S. Northern Command

Lieutenant General H. Steven Blum, USA, Chief, National Guard Bureau

Vice Admiral Terry Cross, USCG, Vice Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard

Lieutenant General Henry A. Obering III, USAF, Director, Missile Defense Agency

Key topics

  • Securing the Skies
  • Protecting the Maritime Approaches
  • Defense against Missile Attacks
  • Achieving Border Protection and Providing “Smart Borders”
  • Assuring the Protection of Cyberspace
  • Relating NORTHCOM to other Commands to Provide Integrated Homeland Defense

6:00 – 7:00 PM — Reception - Oculus

7:00 – 9:00 PM — Dinner, and Address - Atrium

Admiral James M. Loy, USCG (Ret.), Deputy Secretary,
Department of Homeland Security

Keeping America Safe: Progress and Partnerships in the 21st Century
Introduction by Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

DAY TWO - Friday, October 29

7:30 – 8:30 AM — Conference Registration and Informal Reception

8:30 – 10:00 AM — Session 5 - Amphitheater
Anticipating and Defending against Bioterrorism

The purpose of this session is to consider key issues of bioterrorism and the respective roles of federal, state, local, and private sector capabilities. This discussion will reflect the diversity of biological agents themselves as well as how they might be used. It will focus on known biological agents as well as the ongoing biological revolution to create lethal or incapacitating weapons. The session will include the disruptive and destructive effects of biological weapons as well as the types of targets that might be the object of attack. Of central concern in this panel are the response requirements from the federal to the local level.


Dr. Charles M. Perry, Vice President and Director of Studies,
Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis


Brig. Gen. Lloyd E. Dodd, USAF, Command Surgeon, U.S. Northern Command

Dr. Charles Gallaway, Director, Chemical Biological Defense Directorate, Defense Threat Reduction Agency

Dr. James M. Hughes, M.D., Director, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Patrick Libbey, Executive Director, National Association of County and City Health Officials

Dr. Ivan C.A. Walks, Senior Medical Advisor, E Team, and former Chief Health Officer for the District of Columbia

Key topics

  • Lessons from the Anthrax Crisis of 2001
  • Threat Monitoring and Incident Assessment
  • Resource Requirements and Coordination
  • Emergency Response and Support, including Critical Surge Capabilities
  • Consequence Management
  • Legal and Civil-Military Action and Cooperation
  • Public Health Issues, including Surveillance and Testing, Immunizations, Isolation, or Quarantine

10:00 – 10:15 AM — Break

10:15 – 11:45 AM — Session 6 - Amphitheater
Strengthening International Cooperation

This session will provide an opportunity to discuss the international dimensions of homeland security. Vulnerabilities and threats to allies such as the 3/11 attacks in Spain and other terrorist acts abroad will be addressed. Consideration will be given to priorities such as intelligence exchange for enhancing cooperation among allies. In addition to transatlantic and other international cooperation, what has been done, and what still needs to be done, to strengthen relationships with Canada and Mexico, in light of their direct interest to NORTHCOM and geographic proximity to the United States? Especially in light of NORTHCOM’s area of responsibility, this session is designed to strengthen the dialogue by including Canadian and Mexican perspectives. In addition, given the importance of forward regions and the global terror setting, as well as the increased role it plays in combating terrorism and out-of-area efforts, the session will include NATO participation.


Ambassador Stephen W. Bosworth, Dean, The Fletcher School, Tufts University


Dr. David M. Abshire, President, Center for the Study of the Presidency, and former United States Ambassador to NATO

The Honorable Lisa Bronson, Deputy Under Secretary for Technology Security Policy and Counterproliferation and Director, Defense Technology ** Unable to attend conference

Ambassador John Dinger, Deputy Coordinator for Counter Terrorism, Department of State

Oscar Rocha, President, The Joaquin Amaro Foundation for Strategic Studies

E.C. Whiteside, Head, Weapons of Mass Destruction Center, NATO

Key topics

  • International Information/Intelligence Coordination, Exchange, and Integration
  • Enhancing Cooperation with U.S. Neighbors and Others
  • Strengthening and Building on NATO
  • Benefiting from Other International Experience
  • Protecting Transnational Physical and Cyber Infrastructure
  • Increasing the Security of Global Transportation Systems and Commerce

12:00 – 1:15 PM — Luncheon and Address
Protecting the Homeland: Progress at Home and Abroad
Atrium Ballroom

The Honorable Frances Fragos Townsend, Assistant to the President for Homeland Security, Homeland Security Council

Introduction by Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

1:30– 3:00 PM — Session 7 - Amphitheater
Emerging Technologies for Homeland Security: Governmental and Industry Perspectives

This session will address efforts to develop new technologies designed to prevent terrorist operations. This encompasses technologies to identify the transport of weapons of mass destruction toward and across U.S. borders. The panel will consider the spectrum of technologies for detecting chemical and biological, as well as nuclear materials. The discussion will include consideration of technologies that address issues of cargo security, passenger screening, and port security. Given the magnitude of the problems it faces and the scientific-technological base on which the nation can draw, the United States may be on the threshold of substantial technological and operational advances for homeland security/defense.


Dr. Dale Klein, Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Nuclear and Chemical and Biological Defense Programs


Shana Dale, Chief of Staff and General Counsel, Office of Science and Technology Policy

Paul M. Longsworth, Deputy Administrator for Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy

Dr. Hugo B. Poza, Vice President for Homeland Security, Raytheon Company

John Stammreich, Vice President Homeland Security, Phantom Works, The Boeing Company

Key topics

  • Developing Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Countermeasures
  • Developing Systems for Detecting Hostile Intent
  • Applying Biometric Technology to Identification Devices
  • Improving Technical Capabilities of First Responders
  • Providing Technologies for Improved Chemical Sensors and Decontamination Technologies
  • Preventing Infectious Disease

3:00 – 3:15 PM — Conference Conclusion
Closing Remarks - Amphitheater

Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.