Previous IFPA-Fletcher Conferences

Strategic Responsiveness:
Early and Continuous Joint
Effectiveness-Across the Spectrum

November 2-3, 1999
Marriott at Metro Center
775 12th Street, NW
Washington, D.C.



Conference Registration and Informal Reception

0730 - 0845 — Welcoming Remarks

Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr. President, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis, and Shelby Cullom Davis Professor of International Security

Opening Presentation

0900 - 1000 — Transforming National Defense in the 21st Century

Senator Joseph I. Lieberman, Senate Armed Services Committee

Introduction by General John M. Keane, USA, Vice Chief of Staff, United States Army


1015 - 1145 — Understanding the Implications of the 21st Century Challenges

U.S. national security in the early twenty-first century may be challenged in ways very different from those faced since the end of the Cold War. Others argue that twenty-first century challenges will look much the same as those we've faced through the 1990s: continued high operational tempo, service-members maintaining peace, rebuilding nations, handling refugees and helping with disaster relief-as examples. In either case, the trends toward a multi-polar international system, diffusion and empowerment of non-state actors, and the emergence of new problems will make necessary novel approaches to diplomacy and the use of military power. Developing a common understanding of the factors that will shape national security priorities will provide the essential framework to


Potential for great power, near-peer competition and anti-U.S. sentiment.

The collapse of states and increased frequency of intra-state conflicts.

The proliferation and the threat of weapons of mass destruction.

U.S. domestic dynamics / Increased demand for humanitarian intervention.

New challenges: Information warfare (including cyber-terrorism).

Implications for the Department of Defense.


Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

Panel Members:

Senator John Warner, Chairman, Senate Armed Services Committee

Lieutenant General Patrick M. Hughes, USA (Ret.), former Director, Defense Intelligence Agency

Mr. Robert A. Kaplan, Journalist and Author of Balkan Ghosts and Ends of the Earth

Dr. Richard A. Falkenrath, Assistant Professor of Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

Luncheon and Address

1200 - 1400— The Department of Defense for the 21st Century

The Honorable William S. Cohen, Secretary of Defense

Introduction by the Honorable Louis Caldera, Secretary of the Army


1400 - 1515— Perspectives on a 21st Century National Strategy and the Role of Military Power

We are now confronting a security environment characterized by new sources of instability. At the same time, as a nation the United States seeks to develop a national security strategy that links our interests and values. Coalitions and alliances take on a new role within the framework of early twenty-first century international security. The challenge will be to ensure that our chosen course is consonant with national values and vital interests. We must ensure that our national security strategy and the role of military power can adapt to the challenges of a new century.


Enduring and changing interests and values of the United States.

National security concepts (selective engagement, cooperative security and preventive defense).

Role of deterrence, compellance, and warfighting.

Military operations other than war, including peacekeeping and peace enforcement.

When should we employ the use of force: criteria, guidelines.

Use of military as an element to shape the international security environment.


Dr. Jacquelyn K. Davis, Executive Vice President, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis and Co-Author of Strategic Paradigms 2025

Panel Members

The Honorable Warren Rudman, Co-Chair, United States Commission on National Security/21st Century, and former Senator from New Hampshire

Dr. John P. White, former Deputy Secretary of Defense, and Professor, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

General Klaus Naumann, (Ret.), former Chairman, Military Committee, NATO

Admiral Joseph W. Prueher, USN (Ret.), former Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command, and Ambassador (D) to China

General Sir Jeremy MacKenzie GCB OBE, former Deputy SACEUR, and Governor of the Royal Hospital Chelsea, Great Britain


1530 - 1700— Anticipating Today the Essential Capabilities for Tomorrow

The security challenges in the early twenty-first century require forces to respond more quickly, more decisively and with greater precision. In effect we must define the military capabilities we seek in the new revolution in military affairs. Although this revolution will be driven by perceived needs and future threats, significant change in our doctrine, organizational innovation and decision making capability must accompany technological change. Just as critical as defining the need for new capabilities is identifying a process for realizing them first and then getting them into the hands of Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen and Marines in a timely fashion.


Requirements for guiding operational concepts (littoral and other maritime operations, maneuver warfare, and air/space control).

Forward engagement and power projection requirements.

Enhancement of joint and combined capabilities.

Translating missions into force structure options.

Implications and issues associated with undergoing a transformation.

Nature of future challenges: defining force characteristics, determining desired capabilities - to meet what threats?

Perceived U.S. - European capability/technology gap.


Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

Panel Members:

Dr. Ashton B. Carter, Ford Foundation Professor of Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, and Co-Author of Preventive Defense

General George A. Joulwan, USA (Ret.), former SACEUR, and Olin Professor of National Security Studies, U.S. Military Academy

Lieutenant General Thomas G. McInerney, USAF (Ret.), President and CEO, Business Executives for National Security

General Michael P. C. Carns, USAF (Ret.), President and Executive Director of the Center for International Political Economy (CIPE), and former Vice-Chief of Staff of Air Force, DCINC of CINCPAC, Director of the Joint Staff

Reception, Dinner and Keynote Address

1830 - 2100 — Beyond Joint Vision 2010

General Henry H. Shelton, USA, Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

Introduction by General John R. Galvin, USA (Ret.), Dean of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, and former SACEUR


Informal Reception

0815 - 0845


0900 - 1030 — Strategic Visions: Serving the Nation into the 21st Century

Close cooperation between the Services is key to successful future application of military power. Although threats to American security have changed significantly in the last decade, our military forces look much the same. Each Service has its own vision for the future. Determining how these visions relate to a larger joint strategy designed to adjust to the demands of future threats is essential. Success will be defined in large part by the degree of cooperation and interdependence the Services adopt and the development of a joint implementation strategy. To achieve joint effectiveness means more than cooperation. The Services will need to shed unnecessary redundancies and integrate core competencies


Creating a joint strategic vision.

Building forces that are agile, lethal, and readily deployable.

Tailoring budget priorities to a joint strategic vision.

Synchronization & Synergy: land forces, maritime capabilities, and aerospace.

Integrating capabilities and eliminating unnecessary redundancies.

Achieving optimum efficiency in Joint Operations & CINC Support.


Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.

Panel Members:

General Eric K. Shinseki, USA, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army

General James L. Jones, USMC, Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps

Admiral Donald L. Pilling, USN, Vice Chief of Naval Operations

General Lester L. Lyles, USAF, Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force


1045 - 1200 — Re-Defining Defense: Preparing U. S. Forces for the Future

At the heart of re-defining defense is creating a more strategically responsive force. Our Armed Forces must undertake change in three primary areas: modernization, human resources, and readiness. Of course, each element of change means something different to each of our Services. Fundamentally important will be hard choices between present capabilities and what will be needed in the transformed security environment of the early twenty-first century. How to reconcile existing requirements with necessary investment in forces for the years ahead will be a challenge


Defining defense priorities.

The weapons modernization agenda: legacy systems and/or future systems.

Personnel issues and end strength: recruiting, readiness, and incentives.

Congressional and public support for defense.

Consider new approaches to the acquisition process: advancing prototypes and threat based selection and other options.


Lieutenant General Richard A. Chilcoat, USA, President, National Defense University

Panel Members:

The Honorable Richard L. Armitage, President, Armitage Associates L.C.

Representative Mac Thornberry (R-TX), House Armed Services Committee

Dr. Michael O'Hanlon, Senior Fellow, Foreign Policy Studies, The Brookings Institution

The Honorable Edward L. Warner III, Assistant Secretary of Defense for Strategy and Threat Reduction

1215 - 1345 — Luncheon and Address

Setting Defense Priorities for a 21st Century Transformation

The Honorable John J. Hamre, Deputy Secretary of Defense

Introduction by the Honorable Bernard D. Rostker, Under Secretary of the Army


1400 - 1530 — Realizing True Jointness in QDR Process and Product - How We Do It Right

The 2001 Quadrennial Defense Review will offer unique opportunities and challenges. The last QDR provides valuable lessons that could improve both the process and the outcome of the next review - chief among these is the recurring theme of the conference, cooperation. The next QDR will challenge old modes of thinking, offer alternatives to the status quo, and call many Service equities into question. Our challenge is to find a way, as a defense community, to garner the greatest possible value out of the process. In order to develop the best defense strategy and program for the nation as we enter the twenty-first century, we must approach the process jointly.


The last QDR: lessons learned; how to avoid failures and build on success.

Moving beyond the protection of Service equities to enhanced jointness.

Desired outcomes.

Leadership demands.

Preparation required for success.


Ms. Michèle A. Flournoy, Senior Fellow, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University

Panel Members:

Dr. Richard H. Shultz, Jr., Director, International Security Studies Program and Associate Professor of International Politics, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, and Co-Editor of War in the Information Age and Security Studies for the 21st Century

Dr. David S. C. Chu, Vice President, Army Research Division, and Director, RAND Arroyo Center, RAND Corporation

Dr. Jacquelyn K. Davis, Executive Vice President, Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis and Co-Author of Strategic Paradigms 2025

Senator Jack Reed, Senate Armed Services Committee

1545 — Closing Remarks

Dr. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff, Jr.